Chronology of developments during Shivaji's Stay at Agra based on contemporary Amber Records

(12 May – 17 August 1666)

6th March 1666 : Shivaji sets out for Agra to meet Emperor Aurangzeb

11th May 1666 : Reaches outskirts of Agra

12th May 1666 : Kunwar Ram Sinh of Amber receives Shivaji; Shivaji in Aurangzeb's Court (Diwan-i-Khas), where his famous encounter with the Emperor took place.

13th-15th May 1666 : Begum Sahiba, Nawab Jafar Khan, Maharaja Jaswant Singh (the last one perhaps tauntingly) ask Aurangzeb to punish Shivaji, otherwise Hindus and (particularly) bhumias will be emboldened and become defiant. Aurangzeb decides to put Shivaji to death. When Ram Singh comes to know it, he firmly says, "First kill me and my son and only after that Shivaji. He has come on our solemn assurance". Aurangzeb asks if Ram Singh would stand surety for Shiva. Kunwar Ram Singh readily agrees.

Aurangzeb orders that the Kunwar Ram Singh and Shivaji should proceed to Kabul.

15th-20th May 1666 : Shivaji declines to go to Kabul, Departure for Kabul is postpond

16th May 1666 : Ram Singh made to sign a bond that Shiva would not leave Agra.

19th May 1666 : Proposal regarding Kabul posting of Ram sigh and Shivaji completely dropped.

29th May 1666 : Shivaji offers to pay to the Emperor two crores of rupees if all the forts surrendered by him by the Treaty of Purandar are restored to him and he is allowed to return. Aurangzeb curtly declines saying, "He has gone off his head … How can he be given leave to depart. Tell him firmly that he must not visit anybody, not even Kumar's camp". Strong patrols are posted around his residence.

7th June 1666 : Emperor asks Shivaji to handover all his forts. He offers to grant him mansab. Shivaji says, "I do not want a mansab and I have no control over the forts".

To pressurize Shivaji, the Emperor orderes Faulad Khan and his artillery men, "Go and finish off Shiva". Emperor also strongly objects to the news that troops are coming from Amber and also Shivaji's mulk. Kunwar Ram Singh explains, "They were called in view of posting at Kabul. Now they will all return".

One day Shiva came to Ram Singh and said "I thought your word carried much weight, but here you are requesting so much to the Emperor for me, but he is not accepting any thing. Hence you tell the Emperor, "Here is Shiva, He is no longer under my care. If you wish you may kill him". Kumar, "I will not leave you like that".

Two days ago (5th June) Kumar ordered his men to be on guard duty around Shivaji, and so they also are there.

[It was a clever move of Ram Singh to ensure safety of Shivaji. By posting his own guards on the ground that if Shiva ran away or committed suicide, he would be answerable, he ensured that no foul play was attempted by Faulad Khan etc.. "So Kumar goes and personally keeps a watch on Shiva's bed while Tej Singh and his Rajput retainers Arjunji, Sukh Singh Nathawat and other Rajput Thakurs patrol on all sides of him".]

Shiva tells Kunwar Ram Singh to take back the bond he (Ram Singh) had given. "Let the Emperor do what he likes with me", Shiva says, Kunwar Ram Singh tries to reassure and reason with Shivaji saying, "A letter has been sent to the Maharaja. Please wait till the reply comes".

Shivaji sends word directly to the Emperor through Siddi Faulad Khan that he had given leave to his troops and that they be given passport.

12th June 1666 : Orders are issued that if Shiva were to escape from Agra to Maujabad pargana, he be detained.

16th June 1666 : Shiva conveys to Emperor, "I wish to turn a faqir. Permit me to go to Banaras". Aurangzeb, "Very well, let him turn faqir and remain in Prayag fort. Bahadur Khan is Subahdar of that place, he will watch over him".

Aurangzeb had written to Mirza Raja Jai Singh about Shivaji but no reply has yet come.

(From Haft Anjuman – Mirza Raja Jai Singh to Kunwar Ram Singh c. July 1666.]

Tell Emperor that Shivaji should be detained there in a worthy manner (i.e. not as a prisoner) so that his officers may not despair of his return and they be induced to join Adil Shah (of Bijapur) and create disturbances against us; this policy will avoid the necessity of His Majesty sending a (fresh) army to this side. Press these points strongly with the Emperor".

13th July 1666 : "The Kunwar pays some money to Shiva as per hasb-ulhukm (of Mirza Raja Singh). Emperor's and Kunwar's patrols are around Shivaji. ….. I hear that Shiva has offered to give up all forts to the Emperor, "But let the Emperor give me congee for my country. My officers will not obey any letter from me. I shall go there for taking the forts", says Shivaji. The Emperor has declined. "This is what I have heard only just now. When Kumar asked Shivaji to surrender his remaining forts, Shiva replied "Your father gave the Emperor 23 of my forts and got Tonk pargana (as reward). You are now trying to give my other forts to the Emperor. Tell me what pargana you are thinking of gaining by it. Will it be Toda? On hearing this, Kumar remainedsilent".

18th July 1666 : "Affairs of Shiva continued to be just the same. Patrols are posted all round who are keeping a vigil on him with the same care. Sobha Chand Bakshi and Vimaldas check the patrols at night. Shivaji will continue to live like this for a good many days. Shiva says, "Emperor is not settling my matter. Otherwise I shall die and the Emperor would not get the forts". Kumwar has promised (Shivaji) to make a request again. Kunwar has paid Rs.66,000 to Shivaji to cover which the latter has issued a Hundi payable in the Deccan", writes Parkaldas.

22nd July 1666 : Shivaji gives away a horse, a saropao, male and female elephant and 1000 rupees to Kavindra Kavishvar with a promise to give one more elephant.

(There is no Rajsthani letter after 22nd July till 18th August 1666. During this period, Shivaji feigned illness and began to send out in the evening large baskets containing sweets for distribution among the Brahmins, medicants and poor. As days passed, the sentries became lax in checking the baskets. This gave an opportunity to Shivaji and his son, Shamhaji, to make good their escape by crouching down in separate baskets).

18th August 1666 : Ballu Shah to Kalyandas, the Diwan of Amber State, "This very morning Shivaji fled away from Agra. Orders be issued to all. All ghats are to be closed. If any one in the garb of a jogi or sanyasi passes that way, he should be questioned and searched". (Ballu Shah's letter was despatched four and half hour after day-break on the 18th August and was expected to reach Amber after three days at the earliest).